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Type II Diabetes

Type II Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is one of the three types of diabetes, alongside type 1 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic form of the disease and the most common type of diabetes, whereas type 1 diabetes is much less common, and gestational diabetes only occurs during pregnancy. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body is not producing proper amounts of insulin, which is needed to function properly as well as insulin resistance, which is when your cells don’t react properly. Type 2 diabetes cannot be cured, but may be managed with a special diet, exercising regularly, losing weight and checking your blood-glucose levels.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is caused when the liver, muscle cells and fat cells don’t respond properly to the insulin in the body. Insulin is a natural hormone produced in the body and necessary for proper blood sugar levels. However when these cells don’t respond to the insulin, glucose (blood sugar) doesn’t transfer to the beta cells. Blood sugar is not able to enter the cells which creates a high level of sugar built up in the blood in a condition called hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes will usually come on gradually over time which is why most people aren’t diagnosed with the disease until adulthood. Some risk factors for type 2 diabetes include obesity and advanced age, along with a family history of the disease.

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes

The signs and symptoms for type 2 diabetes don’t typically come on for a while as it is considered a slow-developing and gradual disease. Without treatment, someone with type 2 diabetes might experience frequent infections of the skin, bladder or kidney, fatigue, increased urination or thirst, and increased hunger. There might also be numbness in the feet or hands, blurred vision, and erectile dysfunction.

Diagnosing Type 2 Diabetes

Diagnosing type 2 diabetes starts with a physical examination followed by a series of tests. These tests include blood tests such as the fasting blood glucose level test, hemoglobin A1c test, or oral glucose tolerance test. Someone who doesn’t show symptoms may be tested for type 2 diabetes if they are overweight, a child showing rapid weight gain, or an adult over the age of 45 experiencing odd physical behaviors.

Treating Type 2 Diabetes

Treatments for type 2 diabetes include working to lower the blood sugar to a normal amount such as through medications, diet, exercise, and reducing stress. You will need to find out what triggers the blood sugar spike and avoid those activities.
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