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Primary Congenital Glaucoma

Primary Congenital Glaucoma

Glaucoma is considered to be an eye disease involving the damage of the optic nerve within a characteristic pattern. It is known to permanently damage the vision in the eyes that have been affected and can possibly even lead to blindness if it is not treated promptly or correctly. It is associated with the increase of fluid pressure within the eye. Ocular hypertension is a term that is often use to describe individuals who have this type of increased fluid pressure but have not experienced any optic nerve damage as a result. The term of normal tension or low tension is commonly used to describe those who have experienced optic nerve damage or some visual field loss while maintaining a low or normal fluid pressure in the meantime. Open angle glaucoma and closed angle glaucoma are the two main types of glaucoma. Around 90% of glaucoma cases within the United States are defined as open angle glaucoma. This condition is generally painless and does not provide individuals with any type of acute attack during the progression. However, the only symptoms or signs of this condition can be seen in the gradual progression of visual field loss and changes within the optic nerve. Closed angle glaucoma are around 10% of most glaucoma cases within the United States. Individuals who are affected by this condition are likely to see halos around lights they are viewing, red eyes, sudden ocular pain, vomiting, nausea, decreased vision, and a mid-dilated pupil. Acute angle closure is considered to be an emergency. It is not directly clear why glaucoma occurs outside of general risk factors. It is considered that ocular hypertension is one of the most important risk factors involved in the process, however this is not a clear reason of why glaucoma develops. Investigations into general dietary measures have revealed that glaucoma is not the result of vitamin deficiencies or any lack of a certain element within the diet. Studies have also shown that women are three times more likely to develop glaucoma instead of men and that certain ethnicities also are more likely to develop the condition as well. Genetics can be a factor that can lead up to glaucoma assuming that there are other people within the family that have developed the condition previously. However, there are other elements that can lead to glaucoma, such as the extended use of steroids over a period of time, conditions that may restrict blood flow to the eyes such as diabetes, and various types of ocular trauma.
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